Dna sequencing technology

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleic acid sequence - the order of nucleotides in DNA.It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.The advent of rapid DNA sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery DNA sequencing, technique used to determine the nucleotide sequence of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The nucleotide sequence is the most fundamental level of knowledge of a gene or genome. It is the blueprint that contains the instructions for building an organism, and no understanding of geneti DNA sequencing technologies generate sequencing data that are big, sparse, and heterogeneous. This results in the rapid development of various data protocols and bioinformatics tools for handling sequencing data. In this review, a historical snapshot of DNA sequencing is taken with an emphasis on data manipulation and tools

DNA sequencing - Wikipedi

  1. DNA sequencing methods developed by Frederick Sanger paved the way for sequencing the whole genome of human beings. Sanger's sequencing technology made it possible to map out the genes on chromosomes by fragmenting DNA and identifying the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that code for protein
  2. DNA sequencing serves as an underlying tool, for geneticists and breeders to create desirable farm animals. Chapter 6 aims at showing how DNA sequencing technology has reboosted rodent systematics leading to a much better supported classification of this order. The molecular data generated by DNA sequencing has played an important role in roden
  3. Many of these new technologies were developed with support from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) Genome Technology Program and its Advanced DNA Sequencing Technology awards. One of NHGRI's goals is to promote new technologies that could eventually reduce the cost of sequencing a human genome of even higher quality than is possible today and for less than $1,000
  4. e the precise order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine, guanine, cytosine and thy
  5. ing the sequence of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.Every organism's DNA consists of a unique sequence of nucleotides. Deter

High throughput DNA sequencing methodology (next generation sequencing; NGS) has rapidly evolved over the past 15 years and new methods are continually being commercialized. As the technology develops, so do increases in the number of corresponding applications for basic and applied science. The pur Nanopore sequencing is a third generation approach used in the sequencing of biopolymers- specifically, polynucleotides in the form of DNA or RNA.. Using nanopore sequencing, a single molecule of DNA or RNA can be sequenced without the need for PCR amplification or chemical labeling of the sample. At least one of these aforementioned steps is necessary in the procedure of any previously. However the major breakthrough that forever altered the progress of DNA sequencing technology came in 1977, with the development of Sanger's 'chain-termination' or dideoxy technique .The chain-termination technique makes use of chemical analogues of the deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs) that are the monomers of DNA strands NGS technology goes beyond traditional DNA sequencing with applications that reach across the central dogma of molecular biology from DNA to RNA and protein science. Drug discovery is beginning to benefit from the diversity of NGS, with applications in evidence across various therapeutic areas, such as oncology, immunology and infectious diseases

Our ongoing innovation in sequencing technologies continues to drive new discoveries. From whole genome sequencing to targeted sequencing of specific genomic regions, our sequencing portfolio supports a wide range of throughput and research application needs for DNA sequencing Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology uses clonal amplification and sequencing by synthesis (SBS) chemistry to enable rapid, accurate sequencing. The process simultaneously identifies DNA bases while incorporating them into a nucleic acid chain. Each base emits a unique fluorescent. DNA sequencing was first introduced in 1977, and next-generation sequencing technologies have been available only during the past decade, but the diverse experiments and corresponding analyses facilitated by these techniques have transformed biological and biomedical research

First described by Sanger et al. in 1977 , dideoxynucleotide sequencing of DNA has undergone a steady metamorphosis from a cottage industry into a large-scale production enterprise that requires a specialized and devoted infrastructure of robotics, bioinformatics, computer databases and instrumentation.In the process of its metamorphosis, the cost per reaction of DNA sequencing has fallen with. Rely on Lotus library prep kit, xGen hyb capture products, and the rhAmpSeq amplicon sequencing system for all your sequencing needs. Adapters • Library prep Trademarks contained herein are the property of Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc. or their respective owners, and may be registered in the USA and/or other jurisdictions Our central message is that trends in DNA sequencing will be driven by killer applications, not by killer technologies. In demand Improvements in a technology can either increase or decrease demand Further DNA sequencing technology advancements resulted and the time and cost of sequencing a whole human genome was driven down more, paving the way for next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Now, there are many different sequencing technologies in use, and different ones are preferred depending on budget or application

Illumina sequencing technology, sequencing by synthesis (SBS), is a widely adopted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology worldwide, responsible for generating more than 90% of the world's sequencing data. 1 Illumina sequencing instruments and reagents support massively parallel sequencing using a proprietary method that detects single bases as they are incorporated into growing DNA strands New Technology for Next-gen DNA Sequencing Validated by the VitisGen2 Project. Posted on 03/14/2019 by janetvanzoeren. A new technology called rhAmpSeq™ is allowing grape geneticists and breeders to rapidly find and validate 2000 markers in diverse grape varieties and species A highly scalable technology, DNA sequencing can be applied to small, targeted regions or the entire genome through a variety of methods, enabling researchers to investigate and better understand health and disease. One Decade of Sequencing. Explore the breakthroughs, advancements, and progress Last Updated on January 13, 2020 by Sagar Aryal. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a powerful platform that has enabled the sequencing of thousands to millions of DNA molecules simultaneously.; Next-generation sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing, is the catch-all term used to describe a number of different modern sequencing technologies DNA sequencing. AP.BIO: IST‑1 (EU), IST‑1.P (LO), IST‑1.P.1 (EK) How the sequence of nucleotide bases (As, Ts, Cs, and Gs) in a piece of DNA is determined. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Email. Biotechnology. Introduction to genetic engineering. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR

Top 10 Sequencing Companies

DNA sequencing technologies generate sequencing data that are big, sparse, and heterogeneous. This results in the rapid development of various data protocols and bioinformatics tools for handling. Next-generation sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing, is the catch-all term used to describe a number of different modern sequencing technologies. These technologies allow for sequencing of DNA and RNA much more quickly and cheaply than the previously used Sanger sequencing, and as such revolutionised the study of genomics and molecular biology History of DNA sequencing: The story of DNA begins when Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA in the year 1953. In 1964, Richard Holley who performed the sequencing of the tRNA was the first attempt to sequence the nucleic acid. Using the technique of Holley and Walter Fieser, they sequenced the genome of bacteriophage MS2 (RNA sequencing). ). The sequenced molecules were RNA, Yet.

Ion semiconductor sequencing technology, Source: Konrad Foerstner, Wikimedia Commons Sequencing with bridge synthesis. This sequencing technology is known as sequencing with bridge synthesis of Solexa/Illumina. The double-stranded DNA to be sequenced is ligated at both ends with a different adapter sequence at each end This sequencing method is a mixture of DNA polymerase sequencing via hybridization and synthesis sequencing. Sample preparation involves no ligation or PCR amplification and therefore generally removes the GC material and size differences found in other technologies Global DNA Sequencing Market Size study, by Product & Services (Consumables, Instruments, Services), by Technology (Sanger Sequencing, Next-Generation Sequencing, Third Generation DNA Sequencing), by Workflow (Pre-sequencing, Sequencing, Data Analysis), by Application (Oncology, Reproductive Health, Clinical Investigation, Agrigenomics & Forensics, HLA Typing/Immune System Monitoring, Others. DNA sequencing is simply the procedure of determining the sequence of DNA-a living genetic material-by using a sample taken from an individual. It contains any technology or method that is used in order to determine the sequence of the DNA base: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, among others

DNA sequencing genetics Britannic

Although recent advances in DNA-sequencing technologies have accelerated the analysis of genomes from various organisms, including humans, sequencing whole genomes is still a time-consuming and. What Are The High-Throughput DNA Sequencing And Analysis Technologies? 454 Sequencing. The 454 DNA sequencing is a large-scale pyrosequencing technique that can efficiently sequence around 400-600 megabases within a 10-hour run period. The effectiveness of this DNA sequencing and analysis process is limited due to the limitation in the sizes of. The evolution of DNA sequencing technology from plus-minus sequencing to pyro-sequencing within about 20 years parallels the progress in biology from molecular biology to genomics. The development of DNA sequencing techniques with enhanced speed, sensitivity and throughput are of utmost importance for the study of biological systems DNA sequencing using nanopore technology provides direct, real-time, long reads, scalable, portable, automated, rapid and comprehensive genomic analysis

DNA Sequencing Technologies: Sequencing Data Protocols and

  1. Sequencing technologies include a number of methods that are grouped broadly as template preparation, sequencing and imaging, and data analysis. and single DNA-molecule templates. The term sequencing by synthesis, which is used to describe numerous DNA polymer-ase-dependent methods in the literature, is not use
  2. 2. DNA Sequencing Technologies Introduction DNA extraction and sample preparation Apollo 300 System for next generation sequencing Electrophoresis-based method Ion OneTouch System Microfluidics-based extraction and sample preparation Pressure Cycling Technology Selective immobilization of nucleic acids onto magnetic microparticle
  3. In 2011 the technology of DNA sequencing saved a child's life for the first time in history. Sequencing affects all aspects of biology, and it continues to be the most quickly evolving technology of our time, holding the key to numerous more advancements in the biological field
  4. Around 2005, a new sequencing technology based on sequencing by synthesis started gaining attention as it would allow massive parallel sequencing. This is now known as next-generation sequencing, (NGS), a term given to methodology that enables researchers to rapidly sequence millions of base pairs of RNA or DNA molecules [5]
  5. ate DNA synthesis. - DNA synthesis reactions in four separate tubes - Radioactive dATP is also included in all the tubes so the DNA products will be radioactive. -Yielding a series of DNA fragments whose sizes can be measured by electrophoresis
  6. DNA Sequencing In the late 1970s, two DNA sequencing techniques for longer DNA molecules were invented: the Sanger (or dideoxy) method and the Maxam-Gilbert (chemical cleavage) method. The Maxam-Gilbert method is based on nucleotide- specific cleavage by chemicals and is best used to sequence oligonucleotides (short nucleotide polymers, usually smaller than 50 base-pairs in length)

Among technology segmentation, next-generation sequencing technology (NGS) is anticipated to hold the largest share of DNA sequencing market during the forecast period owing to the growing application of next-generation sequencing technology in the clinical domain, faster sequencing of large DNA sequences simultaneously, and being more sensitive in detecting low-frequency variants Emerging technologies in DNA sequencing Michael L. Metzker Human Genome Sequencing Center and Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA Demand for DNA sequence information has never been greater, yet current Sanger technology is too costly, tim

Whole Genome Amplification Sequencing | Sigma-Aldrich

DNA Sequencing: Definition, Methods, Examples Sciencin

DNA sequencing is essentially another term for reading the DNA double helix or determining the sequence of its nucleotides or bases. Nucleotides are comprised of four chemical bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). These bases always form the same base pairs within the DNA double helix: A always pairs with T, and C always pairs with G DNA sequencing using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) Technology. PacBio sequencing can read very long strands of DNA very accurately. Our research group has used it to read the sequences of small loops of bacterial DNA , called plasmids, and understand how these can make bacteria resistant to antibiotics

Improvements in DNA sequencing technology will thus lead to advances in our understanding of many different biological processes. Second-generation sequencing platforms. Since the late 1970s DNA sequencing has been dominated by a single chemical approach, albeit in increasingly sophisticated formats: dideoxy terminator or Sanger sequencing1 Currently, the two most popular methods of DNA sequencing are Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing (NGS). View a comparison of each method here

DNA SEQUENCING TECHNOLOGY Natapol Pornputtapong 17 January 2018. WHY NEED TO KNOW DNA SEQUENCES Bioinformatics for Phylogenetic Analysis Workshop 2. WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH A DNA SEQUENCE? •Geneticists are now able to understand the function of genes by finding distinctive codin History and advances of next‐generation sequencing technologies. The conventional DNA‐sequencing approach was introduced by Sanger et al. and is capable of recovering up to 1 kb of sequence data from a single specimen at a time. The most advanced version of automated Sanger sequencers is capable of sequencing up to 1 kb for 96 individual specimens at a time Applications of DNA technologies. Practice: Biotechnology. Video transcript - [Voiceover] Have you ever wondered how we sequence DNA? Well, let's just take a quick look at DNA sequencing. We're going to break down DNA sequencing into three different steps Progression of sequencing technology. Genomics is a relatively new field; in fact, the first DNA sequences were only obtained less than half a century ago in the early 1970s

NA sequencing has two intertwined histories—that of the under - lying technologies and that of the breadth of problems for which it has proven useful. Here we first review major developments in the history of DNA sequencing technologies (Fig. 1). Next we consider the trajectory of DNA sequencing applications (Fig. 2). Finally, we discus DNA Sequencing: Emerging Technologies and Applications The global market for sequencing products was nearly $3 billion in 2011, and it is forecast to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17.5% to reach $6.6 billion by 2016 Meeting these requirements for a wide range of applications, our DNA sequencing portfolio features single-tube workflows for challenging samples such as single cells, cell-free DNA, or FFPE DNA. The ThruPLEX DNA-Seq kit can be used in any DNA-seq, RNA-seq, or ChIP-seq application and offers robust, targeted sequencing performance with all leading target enrichment platforms

Amid patent lawsuit, genetic sequencing upstart unveils

DNA Sequencing Fact Sheet - Genome

DNA sequencing is the process of working out the exact order of the four bases in a strand of DNA.. Human chromosomes range in size from about 50,000,000 to 300,000,000 base pairs. Human chromosomes range in size from about 50,000,000 to 300,000,000 base pairs and each human being has 46 (23 pairs) of these chromosomes. This means we have approximately 3.2 billion bases of DNA in total Oxford Nanopore Technologies Fully scalable, real-time DNA/RNA sequencing technology Oxford Nanopore Diagnostics LamPORE - rapid, low-cost, scalable detection of SARS-CoV-2 Nanopore Community Meeting 2020 Online A conference hosted by Oxford Nanopore Technologie

For an educational activity on DNA sequencing, check out the DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Additional Resources: Battelle Technology Partnership Practice - The Impact of Genomics on the U.S. Economy; Icahn School of Medicine - Whole Genome Sequencing & You; YouTube Playlist - Videos Explaining Different DNA Sequencing. The DNA Sequencing - Technologies, Markets & Companies report from Jain PharmaBiotech has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.. This report briefly reviews basics of human genome variations, development of sequencing technologies, and their applications. Current large and small sequencers are described as well as companies developing them Nicked DNA does not amplify in Sanger sequencing applications because the double stranded helix does not maintain a tight formation. Taq polymerase is unable to fulfill a lock-key attachment to the DNA and catalyze extension. For automated sequencing to work, plasmid DNA must maintain a supercoiled structure

Industry leaders hope to bring that cost down to just $100 within the next ten years. Of course, the scientific knowledge gained from the Human Genome Project helped propel DNA sequencing technology to its current state, but another major factor in the process has been the advancement of Computer Science and Engineering. Increased Storage and Spee DNA-sequencing is het proces waarbij de nucleïnezuursequentie - de volgorde van nucleotiden in DNA - wordt vastgesteld. DNA-sequencing omvat alle methoden en technieken die onderzoekers gebruiken om de volgorde van de vier basen te bepalen: adenine, guanine, cytosine en thymine.De opkomst van snelle sequencing-methoden sinds de jaren 2000 vormde de basis voor vele belangrijke biologische. Keywords: Next generation sequencing technologies; DNA; Sequencing; Long reads; Short reads Introduction The discovery of the double helix structure composed of four Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) bases {A, T, C, G} by Watson JD et al. in 1953 [1] has led to the decoding of genomic sequences and know DNA composition of organisms Proven DNBseq sequencing technology combines the power of DNA Nanoballs (DNB™), PCR-free Rolling Circle Replication, Patterned Nano Arrays and cPAS to deliver a new level of data clarity and affordability. Contact us for more informatio When the Human Genome Project was completed in 2003, automated Sanger DNA sequencing with fluorescent dye labels was the dominant technology. Several nascent alternative methods based on older ideas that had not been fully developed were the focus of technical researchers and companies. Funding agencies recognized the dynamic nature of technology development and that, beyond the Human Genome.

Founders of sequencing technology Sanger Gilbert Shared with Walter Gilbert and Paul Berg. Two basic methods for DNA sequencing :-A- Chemical cleavage method (Maxam and Gilbert, 1977) - Base-specific cleavage of DNA by certain chemicals - Four different chemicals, one for each bas DNA Sequencing technology can help decode the complexities of human disease. The MicrobeBridge™ reference database allows the CDC to use sequencing technology to quickly identify microbes and help stem outbreaks and epidemics. When the Ebola outbreak threatened West Africa,. The massively parallel sequencing technology known as next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the biological sciences. With its ultra-high throughput, scalability, and speed, NGS enables researchers to perform a wide variety of applications and study biological systems at a level never before possible

DNA Sequencing Summar

Global DNA Sequencing Technologies, Markets & Companies Report 2020: Human Genome Variations, Development of Sequencing Technologies, and their Applications 2019-202 CDC's Advanced Molecular Detection Program uses revolutionary advances in DNA sequencing and bioinformatics technologies to transform the US public health system. The invention of DNA sequencing in the 1970s allowed scientists to decode the DNA of pathogens that cause sickness and disease Global DNA Sequencing Technologies, Markets & Companies Report 2020: Market Value for 2019 & Estimates for 2024 & 2029 - ResearchAndMarkets.co Abstract. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have led to efficient methods for determining the sequence of DNA. DNA sequencing was born in 1977 when Sanger et al proposed the chain termination method and Maxam and Gilbert proposed their own method in the same year The solid-state nanopore-based DNA sequencing technology is becoming more and more attractive for its brand new future in gene detection field. The challenges that need to be addressed are diverse: the effective methods to detect base-specific signatures, the control of the nanopore's size and surface properties, and the modulation of translocation velocity and behavior of the DNA molecules

DNA Sequencing - Definition, Methods & Examples Biology

20 years experience in large & small scale DNA sequencing projects, providing traditional Sanger sequencing & NextGen Sequencing services incl. bioinformatics support DNA Sequencing Market. The market of DNA sequencing technologies and DNA-based products is projected to reach $45 billion by 2009 and will continue to grow in the next decade. However, it is no longer expensive. The cost of Human Genome Project was more than $3 billion Modern next generation sequencing systems are now being built with the height of CPU technology, allowing for a complete DNA sequence (which is more than three billion DNA strands) to be mapped out in a single week instead of the original 13 years that the Human Genome Project took Generation II DNA Sequencing Technologies By Dr Stephen F. Kingsmore, Dr Jenny C. van Velkinburgh, Dr Joann Mudge, and Dr Gregory D. May Generation II DNA sequencing has been widely heralded as a disruptive technology, generating tens of millions of random short sequences at efficiencies up to 20,000-fold greater than Generation I (Sanger) sequencing DNA sequencing technologies ideally should be fast, accurate, easy-to-operate, and cheap. In the past thirty years, DNA sequencing technologies and applications have undergone tremendous development and act as the engine of the genome era which is characterized by vast amount of genome data and subsequently broad range of research areas and multiple applications

Overview of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologie

DNA sequencing has come a long way since the publication of the first sequencing methodology paper in 1977 by Fred Sanger and Alan Coulson. The next-generation sequencing instruments available today, which are based on non-Sanger sequencing technologies, offer unprecedented speed and cost-effective ways of sequencing large genomes that may have been previously considered impossible DNA Technologies 101: Genotyping vs. Sequencing, and What They Mean For You Flow cell used during our Next Generation Sequencing process. We're all interested in what's in our DNA, the genetic code personalized to each of us PRESENTED BY MARIAM RAZI BS medical technology 6 th semester DNA SEQUENCING Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website

Nanopore sequencing - Wikipedi

Single-Cell DNA Sequencing Workflow. The advent of cell sorting/partitioning technologies, such as flow cytometry and microfluidic, has made it possible to capture single cells, and WGA is optimized to providing high yields of whole genomic DNA for sequencing. The general workflow for single-cell DNA sequencing is outlined below. Service. DNA sequencing / Genome sequencing / Massively parallel / Microchip electrophoresis DOI 10.1002/elps.200800456 1 Introduction The draft [1, 2] and Þnished [3] sequencing technologies, our understanding of the current state of sequencing technologies. What is written here i Overview of DNA sequencing strategies. Shendure JA(1), Porreca GJ, Church GM, Gardner AF, Hendrickson CL, Kieleczawa J, Slatko BE. Author information: (1)Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. Efficient and cost-effective DNA sequencing technologies are critical to the progress of molecular biology

CoreGenomics: 10X Genomics single-cell 3'mRNA-seq explained

Next generation sequencing (NGS) uses parallel sequencing to determine the order of nucleotides, or bases, that make up DNA. Whether you sequence the whole genome or target a specific part of it, DNA sequencing using NGS provides fast and accurate data to answer almost any genomics question The quantity and wealth of information that can be gathered from sequencing data have increased tremendously from Sanger sequencing to next generation sequencing (NGS), while there is a precipitous drop in the cost of sequencing. 1 Several new sequencing technologies have been developed in the recent years, with some enabling sequencing of even single DNA molecules Sequencing Technology. Scientists today use automated machines to sequence large amounts of DNA. During the early years of sequencing, however, all the work was done manually. The first generation of DNA sequencing refers to the earliest methods developed in the mid-1970s

Third-generation DNA-sequencing technologies are distinguished by direct inspection of single molecules with methods that do not require wash steps during DNA synthesis. (A) Pacific Biosciences technology for direct observation of DNA synthesis on single DNA molecules in real time the DNA sequencing technology field has become a quickly mov-ing target, and we can at best provide a snapshot of this particular moment. Next-generation DNA sequencing Jay Shendure1 & Hanlee Ji2 DNA sequence represents a single format onto which a broad range of biological phenomena can be projected for high-throughput data collection DNA sequencing Market by Product (Consumable, Instrument, and Service) Application (Biomarkers and Cancer, Diagnostics, Reproductive Health, Personalized Medicine, Forensics, and Others), Technology (Sequencing by Synthesis, Ion Semiconductor Sequencing, Sequencing by Ligation, Pyrosequencing, Single Molecule Real-time Sequencing, Chain Termination Sequencing, and Nanopore Sequencing), and End. The most dramatic advance in sequencing and the one that carried DNA sequencing into a high throughput environment was the introduction of automated sequencing using fluorescence-labeled dideoxy-terminators. In 1986, Leroy Hood and colleagues reported on a DNA sequencing method in which the radioactive labels, autoradiography, an DNBSEQ™ is BGI's proprietary sequencing technology, developed by our Complete Genomics subsidiary in Silicon Valley. This system is powered by combinatorial Probe-Anchor Synthesis (cPAS), linear isothermal Rolling-Circle Replication and DNA Nanoballs (DNBTM) technology, followed by high-resolution digital imaging

Doing DNA: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute - Pod AcademyResearchers Sequence Mongolian Genome Using DNA Of GenghisPrecision medicine requires reliable genome sequencingDNA holds the key to tackling tuberculosis

The DNA Technologies and Expression Analysis Core at the Genome Center offers high-throughput sequencing, genotyping, and microarray services, as well as training and consultation. Our goal is to enable access to high throughput genome-wide analyses at economical recharge rates, as a functional extension of your laboratory The global DNA sequencing market was $10.7 billion in 2018 and is forecast to increase at a compound annual growth rate of 18.0% to reach $24.4 billion in 2023 Since 1975, DNA sequencing technology has been through four generations, but the fourth-generation technology-Nanopore sequencing is still under development. DNA sequencing market to hit $10 billion by 2017. The number of patent filings in the field of sequencing technology showed a general increase between 2003 and 2011,.

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